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The essential guide to photographic composition


Written by Esther C

Published May 16, 2024

In the world of photography, composition plays a vital role in creating captivating and visually stunning images. It brings together various elements and techniques to guide the viewer's eye and deliver a powerful message. Composition communicates the photographer's intention, whether it's capturing the beauty of a landscape, the emotion of a portrait, or the narrative of a street scene.

Whether you're an aspiring photographer or simply looking to improve your skills, understanding the fundamentals of photographic composition is essential, which is why we've put together this introductory guide.


  • Understanding the basics of photographic composition
    • What is photographic composition?
    • The importance of good composition in photography
  • The elements of photographic composition
    • The rule of thirds
    • Balancing elements for a harmonious shot
    • Using lines to guide the viewer's eye
    • Symmetry and patterns
    • Frame within a frame
    • Negative space
  • Tips for improving your photographic composition
    • Practise with different subjects and settings
    • Experiment with angles and perspectives
    • Review and critique your own work
    • Get inspired: Review other photographers' work
  • Final thoughts

Understanding the basics of photographic composition

image of a spiral staircase from above

What is photographic composition?

Photography composition is the deliberate arrangement of elements in a photograph to create a visually appealing and harmonious image. It involves making conscious decisions about the placement of subjects, backgrounds, and other elements within the frame.

It requires you to consider factors such as light, lines, shapes, and colours to create a visually pleasing and impactful image. By mastering the art of composition, you can transform an ordinary photograph into a work of art that captivates the viewer.

The importance of good composition in photography

Good composition is crucial in photography as it determines how your audience perceives and interprets your images. It helps to convey your intended message effectively and engages the viewer on a deeper level. By understanding and applying composition techniques, you can elevate your photography and create images that resonate with the viewer.

One of the key benefits of mastering photography composition is the ability to evoke emotions and tell stories through your photoshoot concepts. By carefully arranging elements within the frame, you can create visual narratives that captivate and inspire viewers, allowing them to connect with your photographs on a more profound level.

The elements of photographic composition

When it comes to photographic composition, several key elements come into play. These elements include:

The rule of thirds

image of a man hiking in the mountains using the rule of thirds
Photo by Andrei Tanase

The rule of thirds is a basic principle that involves dividing your image into thirds both horizontally and vertically, so essentially you are dividing your image into nine equal parts.

The points where these lines intersect are known as the "points of interest." Placing your subject or other important elements along these lines or at the points of interest rather than in the centre of the image can create a visually balanced and engaging composition.

It allows the photographer to take the viewer on a visual journey, beginning with a point off to the side and then wandering through the rest of the image.

Balancing elements for a harmonious shot

image of symmetrical arches inside a building
Photo by tyler hendy

Balance is another important aspect of composition. It involves distributing the visual weight of the elements within the frame to create a sense of equilibrium.

If a large object is on one side of the frame, balance it with a smaller object or a group of objects on the other side. Consider both physical size and visual interest. By balancing different elements, such as colours, shapes, and sizes, you can achieve a harmonious and pleasing composition.

Using lines to guide the viewer's eye

image of a road in the desert taken at ground level
Photo by Maizal Najmi

Lines are powerful tools in composition as they can lead the viewer's eye and create a sense of depth and movement. These lines can be literal, such as roads, rivers, and even the edges of buildings, or implied, such as the edges of shadows or the alignment of objects.

Experiment with your shooting angle to enhance the effectiveness of leading lines. Low angles often accentuate lines leading into the distance, while higher angles can show paths or patterns more clearly.

Light and shadow

image of a woman outdoors with shadow effects
Photo by Jonaorle

The use of light and shadow plays a significant role in photography composition. The interplay between light and shadow can add drama, texture, and dimension to your photos.

By understanding how light interacts with your subject, you can create stunning visual effects and evoke different moods in your images. Natural light can create a more authentic feel, while artificial lighting allows for more control.

Symmetry and patterns

image of a plane through a patterned glass roof
Photo by Camila Rocha

Symmetrical composition involves creating a sense of balance and symmetry within the frame. It can be achieved by placing the main subject or other elements in a way that mirrors each other on either side of the image. Symmetry can evoke a sense of order and harmony in your photographs.

When using symmetrical composition, it's essential to pay attention to details such as lines, shapes, and patterns to enhance the overall balance of the image. By carefully aligning elements on both sides of the frame, you can create a visually pleasing and harmonious composition that draws the viewer's eye towards the main subject.


image of a landscape framed by a window
Photo by Alessio Cesario

Framing involves incorporating a secondary element within the photograph that acts as a frame for the main subject. This technique adds depth and complexity to your composition, capturing the viewer's attention and providing a unique perspective.

When utilising the frame within a frame technique, consider using natural elements such as doorways, windows, or arches to create a visual border around your main subject. This not only adds interest to the composition but also guides the viewer's gaze towards the focal point, creating a sense of depth and dimension within the image.

Negative space

image of man holding a skateboard with negative space
Photo by Feruzbek Matkarimov

Negative space is the empty or unoccupied area surrounding the main subject. It provides breathing room for your subject and creates a sense of simplicity and minimalism. Utilising negative space effectively can bring focus to your subject and evoke powerful emotions.

When incorporating negative space in your compositions, remember that less is often more. By allowing ample empty space around your subject, you can create a sense of isolation or tranquillity, drawing attention to the main subject and highlighting its significance within the frame. Experimenting with negative space can add a sense of drama and elegance to your photographs, elevating them to a new level of artistic expression.

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Tips for improving your photographic composition

Improving your photographic composition takes practice and experimentation. Here are a few tips to help you refine your skills:

Practise with different subjects and settings

image of a chair in low lighting in a dark  studio
Photo by Marcelo Jaboo

Challenge yourself by photographing a variety of subjects in different environments. Experiment with various compositions and observe how each one affects the overall mood and message of your image. By trying different techniques, you'll gain a deeper understanding of composition and develop your unique style.

When exploring different subjects, consider the impact of natural lighting vs artificial lighting in a photo studio setup on your composition. The interplay of light and shadow can dramatically alter the mood and atmosphere of your photographs. Experiment with shooting during different times of the day to observe how the changing light can enhance or transform your images.

Experiment with angles and perspectives

image of an exterior wall and window shot from a low perspective
Photo by Vlado Paunovic

Don't be afraid to get creative with your perspective. Explore different angles, viewpoints, and vantage points to add depth and interest to your compositions. By taking a fresh approach to your subjects, you'll be able to capture unique and captivating images.

Another technique to consider is incorporating leading lines into your compositions. By strategically using lines such as roads, fences, or even shadows, you can create a sense of movement and draw attention to key elements in your image.

Review and critique your own work

image of a man reviewing a picture on his DSLR camera
Photo by Rafa Barros

Continuously review and critique your own work to learn from your successes and mistakes. Analyse how different compositions have contributed to the overall impact of your images. Embrace feedback from others and be open to constructive criticism, as it can help you grow as a photographer.

Additionally, consider creating a photography journal to document your creative process. Write down your thoughts, ideas, and reflections on each photo shoot. This practice not only helps you track your progress but also provides valuable insights into your evolving style and preferences.

Remember, mastering photographic composition takes time and practice. By understanding the basics, exploring different techniques, and staying open to learning, you'll be well on your way to creating stunning images that truly resonate with your audience.

Get inspired: Review other photographers' work

Image of people in a photography exhibition room

Being able to identify the photography composition rules other photographers have used in their work and when they have broken these rules for effect will familiarise you with the techniques and the different ways you can apply them.

You can either look up photographers online and visit their website or social media, or attend photography exhibitions.

Final thoughts

Mastering photographic composition is essential for creating captivating images that resonate with viewers. By understanding principles like balance, framing, and leading lines, you can unlock new ways to effectively convey your vision and elevate your photography portfolio.

With practice and experimentation, you can refine your compositional skills and elevate your photography to new heights. So, whether you're capturing food in a kitchen studio, a shoot in an industrial warehouse or scenes in an outdoor studio, remember that thoughtful composition is the key to making your images truly memorable.

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